States’ interdependence, globalization, expansion of scope and authority of international organizations, and the growth of the global civil society have increased concerns about the use of power on the world stage. The way authority is defined and understood is linked to the notion of legitimacy. Contrary to power, an authority claims a right to rule and needs to be legitimate. Indeed, subjects of authority must recognize the authority as legitimate and competent to accept and submit to the authority. Keohane developed six specific criteria to define the legitimacy of global governance institutions and whether they are beyond or below the legitimacy threshold.

ICTs allow some international financial institutions to enable stakeholders to participate in numerous decisional and non-decisional processes. The examples cited here illustrate how marginalized actors gained additional capacity to participate in such processes. However, these financial institutions did not digitalize all processes.

CTs allow some international health institutions to enable stakeholders to participate in numerous decisional and non-decisional processes. The examples cited here illustrate how marginalized actors gained additional capacity to participate in decisional and non-decisional processes and therefore to shape global arrangements. However, these health institutions did not digitalize all processes.